Reading Rocks Someone just found a fossil! In many ways rocks and fossils are the most perfect form of scientific evidence. When rocks solidify, they lock in the record of their environmental conditions and they are able to preserve that geological information for millions and even billions of years. Likewise, all that we know about the life that has existed on our planet for hundreds of millions years comes from the fossils that they left behind. And what a story do they tell! Continents colliding into each other, strange plants and animals that lived in the seas, gigantic creatures that roamed the Earth while giant pterosaurs flew overhead. Best of all, almost any physically fit person can directly confirm most of these mind boggling facts by going on field trips in search of rocks and fossils. Volcanic magma is liquid material that is either ejected into the atmosphere or flows as lava from the volcanic opening. But no matter how these igneous rocks formed, once they are exposed at the surface erosion eventually wears them down and washes them away. These bits and pieces that are washed away later settle to form sedimentary rock layers.
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A sedimentary rock is just what it sounds like: Sedimentary rocks can consist of sand, clay, chalk and fossils and as a marine geologist I find sedimentary rocks very fascinating! Some may think that sedimentary rocks is a bit dull since sedimentary rocks isn’t created by violent and exciting volcano eruptions from the Earths mantle like the igneous rocks.
Dating Fossils And Rocks These support websites are always linked to paid dating sites and are highly search engine optimized so that it is more likely for people to reach their service. Some Christian dating and dating websites even offer email, instant messaging, discussion forums, and mingle areas.
Sedimentary Rocks slowest to form, and weather the fastest! The material is deposited in layers that will eventually form the sedimentary rock. These may be transported, usually by water or wind in the case of sand and deposited to form sediments. These become buried under later forming sediments and water or by major tectonic activity, and then become subjected to compression as enormous pressures are created deep in the crust from the weight of rocks or sediments above them.
Over millions of years from the fragments of eroded pre-existing rocks, water is squeezed out and the particles cement together with the help of dissolved salts and silica crystallising out. Other changes come about depending on the type of material from which the sedimentary rock is formed. It then becomes compressed under the weight of water and other sediments and the water is squeezed out and the particles cement together.
Dating dinosaurs and other fossils
The only direct way we have of learning about dinosaurs is by studying fossils. Fossils are the remains of ancient animals and plants, the traces or impressions of living things from past geologic ages, or the traces of their activities. Fossils have been found on every continent on Earth, maybe even near where you live. The word fossil comes from the Latin word fossilis, which means “dug up. Sedimentary rock is rock that has formed from sediment, like sand, mud, small pieces of rocks.
Over long periods of time, these small pieces of debris are compressed squeezed as they are buried under more and more layers of sediment that piles up on top of it.
Meme: The rocks date the fossils and the fossils date the rocks Excerpted from: In addition to refusing to see the circular reasoning involved in dating fossils, evolutionist refuse to acknowledge the many problems with the geological column (depicted above) itself.
Links Other Dating Methods Since the radioisotope dating techniques, discussed on this web page, do not date the fossil but the rock surrounding the fossil; We need to look at a different set of assumptions than is necessary when considering either C or Amino Acid dates. Evolutionists believe that the fossil will date the same as the surrounding rock because the radioisotope clock is generally thought to reset to zero. However, what would a Creationist need to assume or question when looking at this problem involving the reseting of the clock?
When trying to understand Radioisotope Dating techniques from the short time perspective of the Creationary Paradigm, it is important that we understand the assumptions made by both the Scientific Community and the much smaller Creation Science Community. Introduction to the Structure of the Atom introduces you to topics such as: Introduction to Nuclear Reactions introduces you to topics such as: Average Nuclear Binding Energy and nuclide stability; What is it that drives fission, fusion, and other nuclear reactions; Types of Radioactive Decay: Introduction to Radiometric Dating Techniques introduces you to radioisotope basics such as: Description of half-life, half-lives of radionuclide geochronometers, and radioactive-decay series.
Also, the assumptions that most scientists make in this technique, are studied from the Creationary position. Data from both the Columbia River Basalt in the Pasco Basin and the Yellowstone Fossil Forest in Specimen Creek Ridge is used to help illustrate a possible scenario allowing K-Ar dates to be interpreted in terms or a short age chronology.
And also, concerning various radioisotope decay series, such as U and U , why are they in a state of equilibrium?
Rocks and Fossils
The totality of fossils and their placement in fossiliferous fossil-containing rock formations and sedimentary layers strata is known as the fossil record. The study of fossils is called paleontology. Rocks are classified by mineral and chemical composition; the texture of the constituent particles; and also by the processes that formed them.
These indicators separate rocks into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. It doesn’t work on rocks, pottery, etc. It works because when organisms are alive, they accumulate carbon during biological processes.
Insects The first invertebrates crawled onto land by at least million years ago, and took to the air a few millennia later. The oldest insect fossils date to million years: It is thought that detritus-eating invertebrates colonized land along with the first land plants, possibly the Cooksonia that is often found with the insect fossils; insects did not develop the mouth parts for eating plants until the Carboniferous 50 million years later.
Towering foot tall club mosses and 50 to 90 foot tall horsetails dominated the marshy tropical lowlands. The club-mosses, or lycopsids, were bizarre-looking trees with scaly-barked trunks that bore leaf scars in spiral patterns, flourished branches from their crowns, and sprouted spikey leaves; their descendants are the ground-pines of temperate forests. The giant horsetails, or sphenopsids, had trunks jointed like bamboo, with branches extending from each raised joint, or node, and bearing circlets of leaves and cones; their descendants are the little horsetails commonly found along the edges of swamps.
These trees reproduced by means of spores, which were dependent on water to reproduce. Later, during the Mississipian and Pennsylvanian periods collectively known as the Carboniferous , seed-ferns colonized vast lowland tracts that extended away from the marshy edges of the sea. The evolution of seeds, which encased the embryonic plants in a protective covering, enabled plants to reproduce in drier habitats. The decayed remains of these trees would be drowned, buried, and compressed into the great coal seams that would fuel the industrial age.
Because of severe erosion, no strata or fossils from the Carboniferous are preserved in New York. Just as plants had evolved seeds, animals evolved eggs with hard shells, which freed reptiles from dependency on water to reproduce. Dinosaurs When joined to the supercontinent of Pangaea around million years ago, eastern North America was an arid interior land of rugged mountains and fault-formed valleys. Rainy seasons alternated with dry seasons:
Radioisotope Dating Methods that date the rock, not the fossil itself.
Find out what’s happening in the world as it unfolds. Fascinating fossils from the Antarctic A team of geologists have discovered million-year-old tree fossils from what is believed to be the oldest polar forest found in Antarctica — dating back to before the first dinosaurs walked the Earth. Paleoecologist Erik Gulbranson from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee studies a fossilized tree he brought back from Antarctica.
Hide Caption 1 of 8 Photos: Fascinating fossils from the Antarctic But this is not the first tree fossil found in the Antarctic Peninsula. Scott collected rocks containing million-year-old fossilized seed ferns.
I added more and compared them with already published carbon dates for fossils as well as the RATE team’s ten coal samples. If Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic sources were deposited in the single Flood year, we would expect them to contain comparable amounts of radiocarbon.
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DETERMINING AGE OF ROCKS AND FOSSILS
Correcting Mistakes in Memes by Evolutionists: For example, Niles Eldredge, co-author of the evolutionary theory of punctuated equilibrium acknowledges: So we can dismiss the false contention that it’s just creationist pointing out this problem. Anyone who examines the dating process carefully will necessarily reach the same conclusion about its circular nature, because that in fact, is the process.
Sep 20, · Thus, carbon dating can’t be used to date rocks or fossils. It is only useful for once-living things which still contain carbon, like flesh or bone or wood. Rocks and fossils, consisting only of inorganic minerals, cannot be dated by this method.
This is what archaeologists use to determine the age of human-made artifacts. But carbon dating won’t work on dinosaur bones. The half-life of carbon is only 5, years, so carbon dating is only effective on samples that are less than 50, years old. Dinosaur bones, on the other hand, are millions of years old — some fossils are billions of years old. To determine the ages of these specimens, scientists need an isotope with a very long half-life. Some of the isotopes used for this purpose are uranium , uranium and potassium , each of which has a half-life of more than a million years.
Unfortunately, these elements don’t exist in dinosaur fossils themselves. Each of them typically exists in igneous rock, or rock made from cooled magma. Fossils, however, form in sedimentary rock — sediment quickly covers a dinosaur’s body, and the sediment and the bones gradually turn into rock. But this sediment doesn’t typically include the necessary isotopes in measurable amounts. Fossils can’t form in the igneous rock that usually does contain the isotopes.